Certain terms and abbreviations used in this website or otherwise used in the corporate public disclosure are defined below:

  • A$

    means Australian dollars.

  • AMR

    means Advanced Minimum Royalty and is rent paid to the royalty holder prior to the payment of royalties on production. Once production begins, the AMR payments are then credited in full against stream of production royalty payments.

  • Au

    means the chemical symbol for the element gold.

  • bbl

    means barrel.

  • Bbls/d

    means barrels per day.

  • Bcf

    means billion cubic feet.

  • Boe

    mean barrels of oil equivalent.

  • Boe/d

    means barrels of oil equivalent per day.

  • CAGR

    means Compounded Annual Growth Rate.

  • CIM

    means the Canadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy and Petroleum.

  • CIM Definitions

    means the CIM Standards on Mineral Resources and Reserves Definition and Guidelines adopted by CIM Council on December 11, 2005, as amended from time to time.

  • concentrate

    is the product of physical concentration process, such as flotation or gravity concentration, which involves separating ore minerals from unwanted waste rock. Concentrates require subsequent processing (such as smelting or leaching) to break down or dissolve the ore minerals and obtain the desired elements, usually metals.

  • Cu

    means the chemical symbol for the element copper.

  • cut-off grade

    means the lowest grade of Mineral Resource considered economic; used in the calculation of Mineral Reserves and Mineral Resources in a given deposit.

  • diamond drill

    is a type of drill in which the rock cutting is done by abrasion, with a diamond impregnated bit, rather than by percussion. The drill cuts a core of rock which is recovered in long cylindrical sections. Syn: “core drill”.

  • dip

    is the angle between a horizontal plane and an inclined surface such as a rock formation, fault or vein.

  • drift

    is a horizontal passage underground that follows along the length of a vein of rock formation.

  • EIS

    means environmental impact statement.

  • eq or Eq

    means equivalent.

  • fault

    means a fracture in a rock where there has been displacement of the two sides.

  • Fe

    means the chemical symbol for iron.

  • feasibility study

    means a comprehensive study of a mineral deposit in which all geological, engineering, legal, operation, economic, social, environmental and other relevant factors are considered in sufficient detail that it could reasonably serve as a basis by a financial institution to finance the development of a deposit for mineral production.

  • FH

    means Freehold.

  • flotation

    is a process by which mineral particles are induced to become attached to bubbles and float, in an ore and water slurry, so that the valuable minerals are concentrated at the slurry surface and separated from the worthless gangue.

  • fracture

    means breaks in a rock, usually due to intensive folding or faulting.

  • Freehold

    means an interest in real property.

  • g

    represents grams.

  • g/t

    means grams per tonne.

  • GR

    means Gross Royalty and is a royalty based on all revenues in cash or in-kind products received by the operator for the sale of product.

  • grade

    means the concentration of each ore metal in a rock sample, usually given as weight percent. Where extremely low concentrations are involved, the concentration may be given in grams per tonne (g/t) or oz per ton (oz/t).

  • Guide 7

    means the mining industry guide entitled “Description of Property by Issuers Engaged or to be Engaged in Significant Mining Operations” contained in the Securities Act Industry Guides published by the United States Securities and Exchange Commission, as amended.

  • ha

    means hectares; 10,000 square metres.

  • heap leaching process

    is the process of extracting gold and silver by placing broken ore on an impermeable pad and applying a diluted cyanide solution that dissolves a portion of the contained gold and silver, which are then recovered in metallurgical processes.

  • Indicated Resources

    has the meaning ascribed to the term “indicated mineral resource” pursuant to CIM Definitions.

  • Inf

    means Inferred.

  • Inferred Resources

    has the meaning ascribed to the term “inferred mineral resource” pursuant to CIM Definitions.

  • JORC

    means the Australasian Code for Reporting of Mineral Resources and Reserves prepared by the Joint Ore Reserves Committee of the Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Australian Institute of Geoscientists and Mineral Council of Australia, as amended.

  • kg

    represents kilogram.

  • km

    represents kilometre.

  • km2

    represents square kilometre.

  • koz

    means thousand ounces.

  • kt

    means thousand tonnes.

  • lb

    represents pound.

  • LOM

    means life of mine.

  • m

    means metres.

  • M&I

    means Measured and Indicated.

  • Mbbls/mbbls

    means thousand barrels.

  • Mboe/mboe

    means thousand barrels of oil equivalent.

  • Mcf/mcf

    means thousand cubic feet.

  • Measured Resources

    has the meaning ascribed to the term “measured mineral resource” pursuant to CIM Definitions.

  • Mineral Royalties

    means the royalty interests in precious and base metal properties and certain equity interests owned by Franco-Nevada.

  • mineralization

    usually implies minerals of value occurring in rocks.

  • Mlbs

    means millions of pounds.

  • MMbbl

    means million barrels of oil.

  • MMcf/d or mmcf/d

    means million cubic feet per day.

  • MMcf/mmcf

    means million cubic feet.

  • Mo

    means the chemical symbol for the element molybdenum.

  • Moz

    means million ounces.

  • Mtpa

    means million tonnes per annum.

  • NGLs

    means Natural Gas Liquids.

  • Ni

    means the chemical symbol for the element nickel.

  • NI 43-101

    means National Instrument 43-101 - Standards of Disclosure for Mineral Projects of the Canadian Securities Administrators.

  • NI 51-101

    means National Instrument 51-101 - Standards of Disclosure for Oil & Gas Activities of the Canadian Securities Administrators.

  • NPI

    means Net Profit Interest: the profits after deduction of expenses.

  • NPI Royalty

    has the meaning ascribed to it under “Royalties and streams explained”.

  • NPR

    means Net Proceeds Royalties: which is the profits after deduction of expenses.

  • NRI

    means Net Royalty Interest: paid net of operating and capital costs (similar to an NPI).

  • NSR

    means Net Smelter Return: Which is the proceeds returned from the smelter and/or refinery to the mine owner less certain costs.

  • NSR Royalty

    has the meaning ascribed to it under “Royalties and streams explained”.

  • Oil & Gas Interests

    means the royalty interests, working interests and oil and natural gas mineral rights in oil and natural gas properties owned by Franco-Nevada.

  • open pit

    is a surface working open to daylight, such as a quarry.

  • ore

    means a natural aggregate of one or more minerals which may be mined and sold at a profit, or from which some part may be profitably separated.

  • ORR

    means Overriding Royalty: A percentage share of production, which is free of all costs of drilling and producing, and is created by the lessee or working interest owner and paid by the lessee or working interest owner.

  • oz

    represents ounce (troy). 1 troy ounce = 1.097 avoirdupois ounce.

  • oz/ton

    represents troy ounces per short ton.

  • P&P

    means Proven and Probable.

  • Pb

    means the chemical symbol for the element lead.

  • Pd

    means the chemical symbol for the element palladium.

  • PFS

    means preliminary feasibility study.

  • PGM

    means the platinum group of metals, including but not limited to Palladium, Platinum, Rhodium, Osmium, and Rhenium.

  • porphyry

    is an igneous rock of any composition that contains conspicuous, large mineral grains (phenocrysts) in a fine-grained matrix.

  • preliminary feasibility study

    means a comprehensive study of the viability of a mineral project that has advanced to a stage where the mining method, in the case of underground mining, or the pit configuration, in the case of an open pit, has been established and an effective method of mineral processing has been determined, and includes a financial analysis based on reasonable assumptions of technical, engineering, legal, operating, economic, social, and environmental factors and the evaluation of other relevant factors which are sufficient for a qualified person, acting reasonably, to determine if all or part of the mineral resource may be classified as a mineral reserve.

  • Probable Reserve

    in respect of Mineral Reserves has the meaning ascribed to the term “probable mineral reserve” pursuant to CIM Definitions.

  • Proven Reserve

    in respect of Mineral Reserves has the meaning ascribed to the term “proven mineral reserve” pursuant to CIM Definitions.

  • Pt

    means the chemical symbol for the element platinum.

  • Qualified Person

    for the purposes of NI 43-101, is an individual who is an engineer or geoscientist with at least five years of experience in mineral exploration, mine development or operation or mineral project assessment, or any combination of these; and has experience relevant to the subject matter of the mineral project; and who is a member in good standing of a recognized self-regulatory organization of engineers or geoscientists.

  • Reserves

    means collectively, in respect of Mineral Reserves, Probable Reserves and Proven Reserves.

  • Resources

    means a concentration or occurrence of diamonds, natural solid inorganic material, or natural solid fossilized organic material including base and precious metals, coal, and industrial minerals in or on the earth’s crust in such form and quantity and of such a grade or quality that it has reasonable prospects for economic extraction.

  • run-of-mine ore

    means mined ore which has not been subjected to any pre-treatment, such as washing, sorting or crushing prior to metallurgical processing.


    means the South African Code for Reporting of Mineral Resources and Mineral Reserves prepared by the South African Mineral Committee under the auspices of the South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, as amended.

  • smelting

    is an intermediate stage metallurgical process in which metal is separated from impurities by using thermal or chemical separation techniques.

  • stope

    means an excavation in an underground mine from which ore is being or has been extracted.

  • strike

    means the trend or direction of the intersection of a dipping a layer of rock, fault, vein or other geologic feature with a horizontal surface.

  • tailings

    means material rejected after recoverable valuable minerals have been extracted from the ore or concentrate.

  • ton

    is 2,000 pounds. Syn; short ton.

  • tonne

    means 1,000 kilograms.

  • tpa

    means tonnes per annum.

  • vein

    means an epigenetic mineral filling of a fault or other fracture, in tabular or sheet-like form, often with associated replacement of the host rock; a mineral deposit of this form and origin.

  • waste

    is rock which is not ore and usually has to be removed during the normal course of mining to get at the ore.

  • WI

    means working interest.

  • Zn

    means the chemical symbol for the element zinc.